b'Sport Science | Engineer InnovationFigure 4: Aerodynamic drag calculationburying themselves in a pack of runnersprevious attempt and during his to well beyond that halfway point.legitimate world record run, this time Kipchoge didnt hit the front until aboutKipchoge wore Nike Vaporfly Next shoes 21 miles into his world record run inthat included three spring plates and two Berlin in 2017. We dont think that it iscushioning air pockets, all of which were unreasonable to assume that Kipchogeclaimed to increase his running would run several minutes slower if theyefficiency, and thus reduce energy were forced to run solo for 26.2 miles.expenditure, by more than 4 percent.The fastest female marathon runner, Paula Radcliffe, ran almost two minutesHowever, the biggest change was in the faster when surrounded by male runnerspacing formation, and how the pacers (who were presumably drafting her)were deployed. Gone was the delta than when front running in a female- formation of the previous attempt, only race, a world record that lasted forreplaced by a new inverted V 16 years. formation, which at first sight seemed slightly counter-intuitive from a pure INEOS 1:59 aerodynamics point of view. INEOS 1:59 attempt employed similar, but with refined tactics designed toDelta formations occur naturally enable Kipchoge to run at least 26whenever the aim is to minimize the seconds faster and to become the firstdrag forces acting on a body or a group athlete to break the 2-hour barrier.of objects. Think of the shape of the peloton in a cycle race, or the formation The first big change was the courseof a skein of migrating geese. However, choice. Replacing the twists and turns ofthe aim here is different; unlike in a a motor racing course with laps a conventional race, the pacers in these 2.7-mile long boulevard in the center ofattempts are expendable, being swapped Vienna. Unlike the previous attempt,in and out of the pacing formation as spectators were encouraged to line thethey become exhausted or their sides of the road, offering extraperformance begins to drop. So rather encouragement to all of the runners. than minimizing the drag of the whole pack, as in the previous attempt, this A similar pace car was used to projectformation seemed to be specifically laser guidelines for the runners (showingdesigned to minimize the drag on both the speed at which they needed toKipchoge alone, at the expense of run and how they needed to aligngreater energy expenditure of the pacing themselves for optimum drafting).group. Two runners were placed behind Unlike in the previous attempt, theKipchoge to reduce his base pressure prominent (but largely ineffective) giantand therefore aerodynamic drag further.clock was not present on top of the vehicle. Whereas the original Breaking 2 attempt used 30 elite pacers, the INEOS 1:59 Another change was the evolution ofattempt used 41 pacers, demonstrating shoe technology. Instead of the singleanecdotally that the load on each pacer spring shoes that he had used during thewas increased during the second 13'