b'Engineer Innovation | AutomotiveCoupling 1D & 3D models for electric vehicles thermal Figure 1: FIAT 500e management designBy Nicola Tobia and Matthieu Ponchant Todays car manufacturers are makingTo assess the performance and energy special efforts to come up with newefficiency of architectures early in the approaches to design, development anddesign process, coupling 1D and 3D testing for electric vehicles (EVs), wheremodels has proven to be a successful past experience, standards and know- methodology to get accurate levels of how does not help and engineers andmodeling for more predictive designers are basically starting fromsimulations. This virtual methodology is scratch. By adopting and using implemented to improve development of model-based system design, it will electric vehicles, analyzing all systems be possible to improve productand subsystems in different drive cycle development processes, reduce errors,scenarios. Fiat especially focuses here on and facilitate change management alsothermal management design, as for this new area. In fact, model-basedoptimization of energy consumption has development enables engineers to testbecome of fundamental importance in the system in the early phases of theelectric vehicles, especially to increase development within a virtualautonomy. As a reference case to test the environment, when it is inexpensive toapplication study, the pure electric fix problems. Such model-basedvehicle FIAT 500e, sold in United States development is a process that enablessince 2013, has been considered for faster, more cost-effective developmentthis study. of dynamic systems, including control systems, signal processing, and1D-3D coupling has been used widely in communications systems. different domains over the two 36'