b'Engineer Innovation | Sport ScienceVelocity (kph)08 16243240Figure 5: Velocity field around the runners in an inverted V formation used in the INEOS 1:59 attempt.attempt. The profile of the pacers wasthe course of the marathon distance. A also different this time, as the INEOSsmall amount, but in the world of team employed more 1500, 5000, andmarginal gains perhaps a significant 10,000 meter (m) specialists who areone. capable of running at a faster speed for shorter stints than the marathon andLimitationshalf-marathon specialists usedThe drafting cases, as simulated here, previously. are absolutely the best-case scenario (excluding a strong tailwind). As The CFD results suggest that neworganized as the pacing teams were, inverted V formation did indeed cause athey werent the perfect static obstacles further reduction of drag, by aboutthat this simulation assumes and there three percent over the previouslywere times at which the runners were employed delta formation. This isnot running in perfect formation. The equivalent to about a further one Wattnatural running movements of the in effort required to overcome drag andathletes would probably also expose worth about a ten second saving overKipchoge to additional drag.Velocity (kph)08 16243240Figure 6: Velocity field around the runners in the Delta formation used in the Breaking 2 attempt.14'