b'Electromagnetics | Engineer InnovationHow Electromagnetics Engineering Surrounds UsBy Prof David Lowther, McGill University, Canada; and Mentor, a Siemens BusinessHave you ever asked yourself what happens to the sensors on your car when it rains? Probably not often, if ever. Yet this is just one of the countless and inconspicuous ways electromagnetic engineering has revolutionized the way we live.Consider these three examples which are more striking and apparent:1. Energy and Efficiency. Our modern societies function as a result of being able to create and use electromagnetic energy. The fact that energy can be transmitted between two points through the use of a flexible conducting cable hasFigure 1: 100 MVA Power Transformer assembly in Simcenter 3Dallowed manufacturing processes to be rethought and factories to beElectromagnetics is not a one-size-fits-all redesigned and relocated.job, experts typically categorize issues 2. Connectivity has become secondaccording to whether the nature. Consumers expect high- electromagnetic field changes are quality connectivity all the time. Thisradiated or not. This gives rise to two includes fast download speeds oncategories often referred to as high or portable devices with lower latencylow frequency electromagnetic and low power consumption. Theproblems. Each one has its own typical same holds true for all facets ofcharacteristics and methodology. industry communications, from communication between satellitesAll electromagnetic devices have and base stations, moving carssomething in common: complexity. They and infrastructure and robots andtypically require complex shapes to production line control stations, todefine the desired field structure. The name a few.materials used often behave in a non-3. With this boom in globallinear fashion (for example, the communication networks comesrelationship between magnetic fields more EMI and EMC issues betweenand magnetic fluxes are variable). The communication devices, cables andfield wavelength is much larger than the electric wire harnesses. Both radiatedoverall device dimensions. (for example, and conducted power emissions willa one megahertz (MHz) wavelength in need more attention, and there isfree space is about 300 meters so any no doubt properly engineering thesedevice with a few centimeters as its high-level requirements will be amaximum dimension will have negligible challenge.radiation). There are quite a few factors to take intoAnother major challenge that experts consideration for every electromagnetictend to take for granted is scale. Unlike puzzle throughout the frequency range.many other areas of physics, the range 63'