b'Electronics | Engineer Innovation3D CFD model v=0.01m.s-1 v=0.02m.s-1 v=0.20m.s-1A complete characterization of heat generation was obtained byT=0900s Flow Flow Flowconstructing a 3D CFD-based electrochemical model of the battery that could be validated againstT=1800s Flow Flow Flowexperimental results, then used to simulate and evaluate the performance of the TMS under variousT=2700s Flow Flow Flowoperating conditions.This project used two Siemens PLMT=3255s Flow Flow FlowSoftware products: Simcenter STAR-Temperature (K)CCM+TM software and Simcenter296.45 297.08 297.71 298.35 299.61Battery Design Studio software. Simcenter STAR-CCM+ was used toFigure 2: The temperature rise in the first set of series cells in the pack is a function of the simulate flow and conjugate heat0.9 (C) discharge rate and contact resistance of 0.0025 (m2.K)/W.transfer, while Simcenter Battery Design Studio was used to obtain electrochemical input data. Thisexpensive material. The results inThe Simcenter combination was used to simulate theFigure 2 show the temperature rise in performance of the battery pack. the battery pack using theSTAR-CCM+ experimental TMS are on the same Accurate temperature predictionsorder as those reported in research from a single cell literature that using graphene as amodel The 3D TMS model was used tophase change material (PCM) based compute the performance of thethermal management system.revealed that representative battery pack. It wasAlthough such PCM-based TMS are found the average temperaturecompact, this new TMS does not difference between the hottest andrequire use of such novel materialsmore heat is coldest cells was only 0.5 Kelvin (K).and can therefore be produced at Observing a clear pattern in thelower cost. stored in the temperature rise, the authors realized that a properly defined temperatureConclusioncoefficient could predict theBy using the CFD-based TMS functionalbattery pack in temperature of other cells based onmodel created with Simcenter STAR-the temperature of just one cell. CCM+ and Simcenter Battery Designlower coolant Studio, the results of simulations and Coolant flow rate is critical experimental measurements were in In electric vehicles, power for operatingagreement, validating the modelflow velocity the TMS comes from energy extractedagainst the experiment with greater from the battery. Reducing the energythan 90% accuracy. Representativeconditions, requirement for the TMS reduces itsbattery packs constructed using the drain on the battery, thereby optimizingsymmetry of the total pack were coolant flow rate, which is essential.successfully simulated, together withindicating that The Simcenter STAR-CCM+ modelthe TMS, to lower the computational revealed that more heat is stored in thecost.battery pack in lower coolant flowat lower flow velocity conditions, indicating that atSince the TMS worked effectively and lower flow velocities, less heat issafely under stringent conditions, it isvelocities, less transferred into the coolant. a suitable candidate for large Li-ion battery packs that are used in electric In most battery packs, maximumvehicles. n heat is temperature variation is limited to 3 K along the direction of the flow stream.transferred The experimental model easily met the 3 K limit and could effectively cool the pack even at low-flow velocities.into the Materials such as graphene are used incoolant.compact TMS, which is a novel but 69'